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Bioethics in Canada, Second Edition
A Philosophical Introduction
Every day bioethical conflicts arise in Canadian hospitals and courtrooms; they are debated in newspaper columns and argued in private. This updated edition of Bioethics in Canada provides an accessible introduction to the philosophical, historical, and medical concepts shaping these contemporary, and very contentious, debates.Bioethics in Canada opens with an introduction to moral theory and bioethical principles. These theoretical conceptions are then applied to practical ethical conflicts involving abortion, distributive justice, genetics, reproductive technology, and other vital topics. A landmark case opens each chapter, illuminating the many issues involved in these debates, as well as the philosophical assumptions that shape them. This highly usable text features excerpts of significant bioethical writings, as well as recommended websites, suggestions for further reading, and original case studies for students to analyze.With new information on emerging topics such as transplant tourism and multicultural challenges in pluralistic societies; updated research, recommended reading lists, and web resources; and new cases of interest, this second edition will be a valuable resource for many classes in the disciplines of Philosophy, Health Studies, Medicine, and Nursing, providing a strong ethical foundation in a field whose technical frontiers are ever shifting.
Table of Contents
Each chapter also includes an introduction, a conclusion, cases of interest, case studies, a glossary, suggestions for further reading, and recommended websites.
Chapter 1: Ethical Theory The Ultimate Case Study Ethical Theories, Ethical Dilemmas, and the Case Study in Bioethics Utilitarianism: Happiness, and the Greatest Good for the Greatest Number Mill’s Refinement of Utilitarian Theory Kantianism: Is My Action Right or Wrong? Strengths and Weaknesses of the Theory Virtue Ethics: What Sort of Person Should I Be? Strengths of the Theory Weaknesses of the Theory Feminist Approaches to Ethics The Ethics of Care: From Psychology to Philosophy Feminist Ethics Philosophical Reflection on Religion and Ethics
Chapter 2: Distributive Justice Landmark Case: Jacques Chaoulli Methods for the Distribution of Health Care Resources Ethical Theory and Distributive Justice Guidelines for Limiting Health Care Distribution and Procedural Justice Distributive Justice and Global Concerns Philosophical Reflection on Thought Experiments, John Rawls, and Distributive Justice
Chapter 3: The Health Care Professional–Patient Relationship Landmark Case: Scott Starson The Goals of Medicine Models of the Doctor-Patient Relationship The Nurse-Patient Relationship: An Evolving Ethic Autonomy: Theoretical Considerations The Ethical Limits of Autonomy Informed Consent Strong and Weak Paternalism Advance Directives Feminist Challenges to the Autonomy-Based Concept of the Doctor–Patient Relationship Autonomy and the Experience of Illness Multicultural Challenges in Pluralistic Societies Philosophical Reflection on the Concept of Autonomy and Modern Perspectives on Human Flourishing
Chapter 4: Medical Research Landmark Case: Jesse Gelsinger Historical Aspects: Uses and Abuses of Medical Research The Goal of Medical Research: Healing or Knowledge? Therapeutic Misconceptions Informed Consent Randomized Clinical Trials and the Use of Placebos Conflict of Interest in Research Does Bad Ethics Make Bad Science? Research on Animals Ethical Theory and Medical Research Philosophical Reflection on Medical Research
Chapter 5: Reproductive Technologies Landmark Case: Jaycee Buzzanca The Rise of Reproductive Technologies Infertility and the Desire to Have Children Causes and Conceptions of Infertility The Procreative Liberty Argument and the Harm Principle Weaknesses of the Procreative Liberty Argument Ethical Theory and Assisted Reproduction Feminist Concerns about Assisted Reproductive Practices Cross-Border Reproductive Care and the Baby Manji Case Philosophical Reflection on Technology and Bioethics
Chapter 6: The Genetic Revolution Landmark Case: Nancy Wexler Conflicting Visions of the Future Pre-symptomatic Testing and the Knowledge of Tiresias Genetic Therapy Prenatal Testing and Prenatal Decisions Selective Abortion and the Spectrum of Conditions Pre-implantation Testing and the Moral Status of the Human Embryo Unleashing the Power of the Genetic Revolution: Choice and Control Ethical Theory and Genetic Technologies Philosophical Reflection on Eugenics
Chapter 7: Abortion and Maternal-Fetal Conflicts Landmark Case: Dr. Henry Morgentaler Religious and Historical Perspectives Legal Perspectives Social and Political Perspectives Moral Questions and Arguments Ethical Theory and Abortion Maternal-Fetal Conflicts or the Fetus as Patient Philosophical Reflection on Life, Soul, and Body
Chapter 8: Death and Dying Landmark Case: Hasan Rasouli Historical and Philosophical Perspectives Technology and the Meaning of Death Killing and Letting Die Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide Medical Futility and Impaired Newborns Ethical Theory and Death and Dying Philosophical Reflection on Death and Dying
Chapter 9: Organs and Tissues: Procurement and Transplantation Case Study: “Transplant Tourism” Historical and Philosophical Perspectives Death, Brain Death, and Organ Transplantation Controlling the Demand: Allocation Issues Tissues and Genes as Property Ethical Theory and Organ Transplantation Philosophical Reflection on the Body-Machine
Chapter 10: Medical Paradigms and Non-Standard Treatment Landmark Case: Tyrell Dueck Concepts of Health and Illness A Clash of Paradigms: What Is the Doctor to Do? The Normal and the Pathological Resisting Normalization Ethical Theory and Non-Standard Treatments Philosophical Reflection: Morality and Health
Appendix: The Principles of Bioethics and Case Study Analysis Guidelines
"Bioethics in Canada is an extremely accessible introductory textbook—my students find it a pleasure to read. The authors provide a comprehensive overview of the main philosophical debates in bioethics. This is an excellent text that gives students a thorough understanding of the bioethical terrain in a Canadian context."—Meredith Schwartz, Department of Philosophy, Ryerson University
"Collier and Haliburton have done a Herculean task in this exploration of the ways modern medicine and bioethics are shaped by philosophical assumptions, values and social determinants. The subject matter of the chapters and the pedagogical format utilized by the authors provide a marvelous resource for bioethicists, medical and health care professionals, advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and other readers interested in gaining a clearly and well-written understanding of the theory and practice of bioethics in Canada, and internationally, today."
—Gregory Walters, Faculty of Philosophy, St. Paul University
"Bioethics in Canada does an exceptional job of presenting a balanced perspective on many of the most challenging bioethical challenges facing Canadians today."
—Jeremy Snyder, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University
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